Author: PubMed

Effects of short-term energy restriction on liver lipid content and inflammatory status in severely obese adults: Results of a randomized controlled trial using 2 dietary approaches.

Related Articles Effects of short-term energy restriction on liver lipid content and inflammatory status in severely obese adults: Results of a randomized controlled trial using 2 dietary approaches. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2017 Aug;19(8):1179-1183 Authors: Baldry EL, Aithal GP, Kaye P, Idris IR, Bennett A, Leeder PC, Macdonald IA Abstract Short-term very-low-energy diets (VLEDs) are used in clinical practice prior to bariatric surgery, but regimens vary and outcomes of a short intervention are unclear. We examined the effect of 2 VLEDs, a food-based diet (FD) and a meal-replacement plan (MRP; LighterLife UK Limited, Harlow, UK), over the course of 2 weeks in a randomized controlled trial. We collected clinical and anthropometric data, fasting blood samples, and dietary evaluation questionnaires. Surgeons took liver biopsies and made a visual assessment of the liver. We enrolled 60 participants of whom 54 completed the study (FD, n = 26; MRP, n = 28). Baseline demographic features, reported energy intake, dietary evaluation and liver histology were similar in the 2 groups. Both diets induced significant weight loss. Perceived difficulty of surgery correlated significantly with the degree of steatosis on histology. There were reductions in the circulating inflammatory mediators C-reactive protein, fetuin-A and interleukin-6 between baseline (pre-diet) and post-diet. The diets achieved similar weight loss and reduction in inflammatory biomarkers. There were no significant differences in perceived operative difficulty or between patients’ evaluation of diet satisfaction, ease of use or hunger...

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Treatment with the glucagon receptor antagonist LY2409021 increases ambulatory blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Related Articles Treatment with the glucagon receptor antagonist LY2409021 increases ambulatory blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2017 Aug;19(8):1071-1077 Authors: Kazda CM, Frias J, Foga I, Cui X, Guzman CB, Garhyan P, Heilmann C, Yang JA, Hardy TA Abstract AIMS: To assess the effect of LY2409021 on systolic blood pressure (SBP) in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This 6-week, randomized, crossover study evaluated the effects of once-daily administration of LY2409021 20 mg vs those of placebo on SBP, diastolic BP (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) using 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) in 270 subjects treated with diet/exercise ± metformin. Other measures included changes in glycemic control, serum lipids, and hepatic safety markers. RESULTS: At 6 weeks of LY2409021 treatment, 24-hour mean SBP was increased, with a least squares mean (LSM) difference of 2.26 mm Hg vs placebo (95% CI: 1.11, 3.40; P  < .001). The 24-hour mean DBP and MAP also increased, with LSM differences of 1.37 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.66, 2.08; P  < .001) and 1.67 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.86, 2.47; P  < .001) vs placebo, respectively. At week 6, LY2409021 treatment reduced glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, with an LSM difference of -0.49% (-5.4 mmol/mol) (95% CI: -0.56%, -0.42% [-6.1, -4.6 mmol/mol]; P  < .001) vs placebo. Mean HbA1c at baseline was 7.3% (56 mmol/mol). Small but significant changes in serum lipid and aminotransferase levels were observed with LY2409021 treatment (all...

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Glycaemic control and hypoglycaemia burden in patients with type 2 diabetes initiating basal insulin in Europe and the USA.

Related Articles Glycaemic control and hypoglycaemia burden in patients with type 2 diabetes initiating basal insulin in Europe and the USA. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2017 Aug;19(8):1155-1164 Authors: Mauricio D, Meneghini L, Seufert J, Liao L, Wang H, Tong L, Cali A, Stella P, Carita P, Khunti K Abstract AIMS: To evaluate short- and long-term glycaemic control and hypoglycaemia incidence in insulin-naïve patients ≥30 years of age with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) initiating basal insulin (BI) with or without oral anti-hyperglycaemic drugs (OADs). METHODS: This was an observational, retrospective longitudinal analysis of electronic medical records from 5 European countries and the USA. A multivariable logistic regression model assessed baseline and short-term (0-3 months post BI initiation) factors associated with long-term (3-24 months) glycaemic control and hypoglycaemia. RESULTS: Overall, 40 627 patients were included; 20.9% and 27.8% achieved the general HbA1c target of ≤7% at 3 and 24 months post BI initiation, respectively. Failure to achieve HbA1c ≤7% at 3 months was associated with increased risk of failing to achieve target at 24 months (odds ratio [OR], 3.70 [95% CI, 3.41-4.00]). Over 24 months, 8.9% of patients experienced a recorded hypoglycaemic event. Hypoglycaemia during the initial 3-month period was associated with longer-term risk of these events over the ensuing 3 to 24 months (OR, 5.71 [95% CI, 4.67-6.99]). CONCLUSIONS: Initiating BI with or without OADs is associated with short- and long-term suboptimal glycaemic control; the majority of patients fail to...

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Pharmacological approach to understanding the control of insulin secretion in human islets.

Related Articles Pharmacological approach to understanding the control of insulin secretion in human islets. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2017 Aug;19(8):1061-1070 Authors: Henquin JC, Dufrane D, Gmyr V, Kerr-Conte J, Nenquin M Abstract AIMS: To understand better the control of insulin secretion by human β cells and to identify similarities to and differences from rodent models. METHODS: Dynamic insulin secretion was measured in perifused human islets treated with pharmacological agents of known modes of action. RESULTS: Glucokinase activation (Ro28-1675) lowered the glucose threshold for stimulation of insulin secretion to 1 mmol/L (G1), augmented the response to G3-G5 but not to G8-G15, whereas tolbutamide remained active in G20, which indicates that not all KATP channels were closed by high glucose concentrations. An almost 2-fold greater response to G15 than to supramaximal tolbutamide in G3 or to KCl+diazoxide in G15 vs G3 quantified the contribution of metabolic amplification to insulin secretion. Both disruption (latrunculin-B) and stabilization (jasplakinolide) of microfilaments augmented insulin secretion without affecting metabolic amplification. Tolbutamide-induced insulin secretion was consistently greater in G10 than G3, with a threshold at 1 and maximum at 10 µmol/L tolbutamide in G10, vs 10 and 25 µmol/L in G3. Sulphonylurea effects were thus clearly glucose-dependent. Insulin secretion was also increased by inhibiting K channels other than KATP channels: Kv or BK channels (tetraethylammonium), TASK-1 channels (ML-365) and SK4 channels (TRAM-34). Opening KATP channels with diazoxide inhibited glucose-induced insulin secretion...

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Comparative effectiveness and safety of different basal insulins in a real-world setting.

Related Articles Comparative effectiveness and safety of different basal insulins in a real-world setting. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2017 Aug;19(8):1116-1126 Authors: Ji L, Zhang P, Zhu D, Lu J, Guo X, Wu Y, Li X, Ji J, Jia W, Yang W, Zou D, Zhou Z, Gao Y, Garg SK, Pan C, Weng J, Paul SK, ORBIT study group Abstract AIMS: To compare glucose control and safety of different basal insulin therapies (BI, including Insulin NPH, glargine and detemir) in real-world clinical settings based on a large-scale registry study. METHODS: In this multi-center 6-month prospective observational study, patients with type 2 diabetes (HbA1c ≥ 7%) who were uncontrolled by oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs) and were willing to initiate BI therapy were enrolled from 209 hospitals within 8 regions of China. Type and dose of BI were at the physician’s discretion and the patients’ willingness. Interviews were conducted at 0 months (visit 1), 3 months (visit 2) and 6 months (visit 3). Outcomes included change in HbA1c, hypoglycemia rate and body weight from baseline at 6 months. RESULTS: A total of 16 341 and 9002 subjects were involved in Intention-To-Treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analysis, respectively. After PS regression adjustment, ITT analysis showed that reduction in HbA1c in glargine (2.2% ± 2.1%) and detemir groups (2.2% ± 2.1%) was higher than that in the NPH group (2.0% ± 2.2%) (P < .01). The detemir group had the lowest weight gain (-0.1 ± 2.9 kg) compared with the glargine (+0.1 ± 3.0 kg) and...

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