Author: PubMed

Comparative adherence to diabetes drugs: An analysis of electronic health records and claims data.

Related Articles Comparative adherence to diabetes drugs: An analysis of electronic health records and claims data. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2017 Aug;19(8):1184-1187 Authors: Flory J, Gerhard T, Stempniewicz N, Keating S, Rowan CG Abstract Non-adherence to medications is a major challenge in diabetes care. The objective of this brief report is to compare adherence rates for 6 major classes of diabetes medications: metformin, sulfonylurea, thiazolidinedione, basal insulin, DPP-4 inhibitors, and GLP-1 receptor agonists. We used a data source that linked electronic prescriptions with insurance claims to assess whether new electronic prescriptions for diabetes medications were followed by dispensing claims consistent with that prescription. After one year of follow-up, the daily medication possession probability (MPP) – a measure of overall adherence – at one year for sulfonylurea was 0.49 and for metformin was 0.46. Thiazolidinediones and basal insulin had a similar final daily MPP at 0.36 and 0.39, respectively, which was significantly lower than that for sulfonylurea or metformin (P < .05). GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors were also comparable to one another at a final daily MPP of .30 and .21, respectively (P < .05 compared to any of the aforementioned drug classes). In summary, the rates at which diabetes drugs are prescribed, and the rates at which patients actually take them, differ substantially. Physicians should be aware of potentially significant challenges concerning adherence to newer agents. PMID: 28266807...

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Supplementation of oat (Avena sativa L.) extract abates alcohol-induced acute liver injury in a mouse model.

Related Articles Supplementation of oat (Avena sativa L.) extract abates alcohol-induced acute liver injury in a mouse model. Nutr Res. 2018 Jun;54:80-92 Authors: Mir SM, Sahu BD, Koneru M, Kuncha M, Jerald MK, Ravuri HG, Kanjilal S, Sistla R Abstract Dietary supplementation of oats has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and gastrointestinal disorders. The role of oat extract as prophylactic in treating acute liver injury is not thoroughly established. We, therefore, hypothesized that oat extract would exert protective effect against alcohol-induced acute liver injury in a mouse model. To test this hypothesis, male C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with phenolic-enriched ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of oats (prepared by fractionating aqueous ethanolic extract with solvents of increasing polarity) at dosages of 125 and 250 mg kg-1 d-1 for 12 consecutive days. Acute liver injury was induced by administering 5 doses of 50% ethanol intragastrically (10 g/kg body weight) to mice at an interval of 12 hours. The alcohol-induced liver injury was evaluated by measuring serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, antioxidant parameters, mitochondrial function, and histology of liver tissue. Our results demonstrated that pretreatment with EA fraction at 250 mg kg-1 d-1 significantly (P < .001 for aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive species and P < .01 for lactate dehydrogenase and nitrites) reduced the levels of liver injury markers and significantly (P...

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Healthcare resource utilization and related financial costs associated with glucose lowering with either exenatide or basal insulin: A retrospective cohort study.

Related Articles Healthcare resource utilization and related financial costs associated with glucose lowering with either exenatide or basal insulin: A retrospective cohort study. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2017 Aug;19(8):1097-1105 Authors: Holden SE, Morgan CL, Qiao Q, Jenkins-Jones S, Berni ER, Currie CJ Abstract AIMS: Type 2 diabetes is a major health problem placing increasing demands on healthcare systems. Our objective was to estimate healthcare resource use and related financial costs following treatment with exenatide-based regimens prescribed as once-weekly (EQW) or twice-daily (EBID) formulations, compared with regimens based on basal insulin (BI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) linked to Hospital Episode Statistics (HES). Patients with type 2 diabetes who received exenatide or BI between 2009 and 2014 as their first recorded exposure to injectable therapy were selected. Costs were attributed to primary care contacts, diabetes-related prescriptions and inpatient admissions using standard UK healthcare costing methods (2014 prices). Frequency and costs were compared between cohorts before and after matching by propensity score using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Groups of 8723, 218 and 2180 patients receiving BI, EQW and EBID, respectively, were identified; 188 and 1486 patients receiving EQW and EBID, respectively, were matched 1:1 to patients receiving BI by propensity score. Among unmatched cohorts, total crude mean costs per patient-year were £2765 for EQW, £2549 for EBID and £4080 for BI....

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Implementation of medication-related indicators of potentially preventable hospitalizations in a national chronic disease management program for older patients with multimorbidity.

Related Articles Implementation of medication-related indicators of potentially preventable hospitalizations in a national chronic disease management program for older patients with multimorbidity. Int J Qual Health Care. 2018 Jun 18;: Authors: Caughey GE, Hillen JB, Bacon S, Bullock N, Bullock V, Kalisch Ellett L Abstract Initial assessment: Older people are at increased risk of medication-related potentially preventable hospitalizations (MR-PPH) due to the presence of multiple chronic conditions (multimorbidity) and subsequent polypharmacy. Choice of solution: A pilot study was conducted, using evidence-based indicators to detect older patients in a chronic disease management program (CDMP) at risk of hospitalization due to sub-optimal medication use. Implementation: Previously validated indicators for MR-PPH were applied to patients with multimorbidity, aged 65 years or older and who were enrolled in a national community-based CDMP. Nurse-led telephone interviews and case note abstraction were used as data sources. Evaluation: Nineteen patients triggered the MR-PPH indicators 85 times with a median of four per patient. Sub-optimal medication management was identified 34 times (40%) with a median of two per patient. The most common reasons for sub-optimal medication management were exposure to medications associated with falls, underuse of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin-2 receptor blocker medications for cardiovascular disease and low rates of hemoglobin A1c and renal monitoring in patients with diabetes. Lessons learned: This study has shown the utility of MR-PPH indicators within a CDMP to identify and monitor sub-optimal...

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A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of beloranib for the treatment of hypothalamic injury-associated obesity.

Related Articles A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of beloranib for the treatment of hypothalamic injury-associated obesity. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2017 Aug;19(8):1165-1170 Authors: Shoemaker A, Proietto J, Abuzzahab MJ, Markovic T, Malloy J, Kim DD Abstract AIMS: Hypothalamic injury-associated obesity (HIAO) results from damage to the hypothalamus that often occurs with surgical removal/radiation therapy of tumours in the hypothalamic region, such as craniopharyngioma. There is currently no rigorously studied pharmaceutical treatment for the intractable weight gain and cardiometabolic consequences that occur in patients with HIAO. We aimed to assess efficacy, safety and tolerability of beloranib treatment for 4 to 8 weeks in patients with HIAO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This Phase 2a, double-blind, placebo-controlled study included 14 patients with HIAO, randomized to receive beloranib 1.8 mg or placebo subcutaneously twice weekly for 4 weeks with an optional 4-week open-label extension in which all patients received beloranib. The primary endpoint was change in weight from baseline to Week 4. RESULTS: Participants were 64% female, with a mean (SD) age of 32 (9) years, BMI of 43 (7) kg/m2 and weight of 126 (22) kg. Compared with placebo (N = 4), beloranib 1.8 mg (N = 8) resulted in a mean (95% CI) difference in weight of -3.2 (-5.4, -0.9) kg after 4 weeks. Weight loss continued through the 8 weeks in patients randomized to beloranib (mean -6.2 [-8.2, -4.1] kg). Beloranib treatment was associated with improvements in high-sensitivity CRP. Adverse events were mild to moderate. No patients who...

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